If you live in a particularly old house, an industrial loft or a previous resident was an especially aggressive refinisher or had many pets, chances are good that your wood floors have suffered damage from the experience.
Depending on the nature of the damage, contamination, wear or just general condition, different remedies can be proposed and the floors could be brought back to a beautiful condition. In some cases the floor has deteriorated beyond restoration and complete or partial replacement may be necessary.
Staining hardwood, a coating technique, brings out the wood's character by emphasizing its grains and markings.
Staining enriches the finish by adding contrast and leaving the wood looking natural and darkening the grains.
Staining can also be used to make one species of wood look like another.
When water has come into contact with the hardwood floor either through a major flood or other cause the floor will likely buckle.
This buckling is caused by the hardwood floor absorbing the moisture, trying to expand and being constrained by the installation. When the floor is unable to expand horizontally there is only one other direction to move and that is up.
Repairs are possible depending on the degree of buckling and damage to the floor and the subfloor.